User Commands gcalctool(1)
NAME
gcalctool - a desktop calculator
SYNOPSIS
gcalctool [ -D ] [ -E ] [ -a accuracy ] [ -v ] [ -? ]
DESCRIPTION
gcalctool is a desktop calculator. It has been designed to
be used with either the mouse or the keyboard. It is visu-
ally similar to a lot of hand-held calculators. There are
basic, financial and scientific modes. Some of the calcula-
tor keys have menu marks. This indicates that there is a
menu associated with that key. Each key is discussed in more
detail below.
One of the most important things to remember about gcalctool
is that calculations are performed from left to right, with
no arithmetic precedence. If you need arithmetic precedence,
then you should use parentheses (see below).
Internal arithmetic is now done with multi-precision float-
ing point numbers. Accuracy can be adjusted from zero to
nine numeric places in fixed notation, but numbers can be
displayed in engineering and scientific notation as well.
There is also an option to show or remove trailing zeroes
after the numeric point. The calculator reverts to scien-
tific notation when the number is larger than the display
would allow in fixed notation. In the scientific mode, the
base of operation can be changed between binary, octal,
decimal and hexadecimal. Numbers are initially displayed in
fixed notation to nine numeric places, with trailing zeroes
removed, in the decimal base.
You can use the Copy and Paste functions in conjunction with
the numeric display to store or retrieve characters from the
clipboard. You can also remove the last digit entered, com-
pletely clear the displayed entry and totally reset the cal-
culator.
There are ten memory registers. Numbers can be stored or
retrieved in these locations, and arithmetic can be per-
formed upon register contents.
On startup, gcalctool will use several configuration
resources stored in a gconf database. These are listed in
detail in the resources section of these manual pages. Any
constants or function definitions that the user defines are
also stored in this database.
Context sensitive help is also available. Control-F1 toggles
whether tooltip help is displayed for the item which
currently has focus.
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
OPTIONS
-D Turning on gcalctool debugging.
-E Turning on debugging in the multiple precision arith-
metic package.
-a accuracy
Initial number of digits displayed after the numeric
point. This value must be in the range 0 to 9. The
default is nine numeric places.
-v Show the version number and the usage message of this
release of the gcalctool program.
-? Show the version number and the usage message of this
release of the gcalctool program. Note that the ? char-
acter must be escaped if using csh(1).
RESOURCES
On startup, gcalctool uses the following string type
resources stored in a gconf database:
Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/accuracy
Values: Accuracy value
Description The number of of digits displayed after the
numeric point. This value must be in the
range 0 to 9.
Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/base
Values: Numeric Base
Description The initial numeric base. Valid values are
"BIN" (binary), "OCT" (octal), "DEC"
(decimal) and "HEX" (hexadecimal).
Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/display
Values: Display mode
Description The initial display mode. Valid values are
"ENG" (engineering), "FIX" (fixed-point) and
"SCI" (scientific).
Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/mode
Values: Mode
Description The initial calculator mode. Valid values are
"BASIC", "FINANCIAL" and "SCIENTIFIC".
Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showzeroes
Values: true, false (true)
Description Whether trailing zeroes, after the numeric
point, are shown in the display value.
Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/showregisters
Values: true, false (true)
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
Description Whether the memory register window is ini-
tially displayed.
Resource: /schemes/apps/gcalctool/trigtype
Values: Trig. type
Description The initial trigonometric type. Valid values
are "DEG" (degrees), "GRAD" (grads) and "RAD"
(radians).
MENU BAR
This section describes the menu items available in the
applications menubar.
Calculator Menu
Quit [ Control-Q ]
Exit without user verification.
Edit Menu
Copy [ Control-C ]
Copy the calculators numeric display to
the clipboard.
Paste [ Control-V ]
Paste the contents of the clipboard into
the calculators numeric display.
Insert ASCII Value [ Control-I ]
A separate window is displayed which
allows you to enter any character. The
ASCII value of this character is then
displayed in the current base.
View Menu
Basic Mode [ Control-B ]
Display the calculator in basic mode.
Financial Mode [ Control-F ]
Display the calculator in financial mode.
Scientific Mode [ Control-S ]
Display the calculator in scientific mode.
Memory Registers [ Control-M ]
Display the memory registers window.
Help Menu
Contents... [ F1 ]
Display the online help for the calculator
in a separate window.
About Gcalctool [ Control-A ]
Display information about this applica-
tion, including the version number and the
author.
CALCULATOR BUTTONS
This section describes the calculator keys present in the
main gcalctool window. gcalctool has three modes; basic,
financial and scientific. The keys associated with each of
these modes are described in separate sections below.
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
Keyboard equivalents appear in the square brackets. Note
that Alt followed by a letter indicates that the Alt key and
this key should be pressed together.
BASIC MODE
Numerical Keys [ 0-9 . = ].
Enter a digit (decimal digits 0-9) into the display. The '.'
character acts as the numeric point, and '=' (or Return) is
used to complete numerical entry.
Upto forty digits may be entered.
Arithmetical Operations [ + - x * / ].
Perform an arithmetical operation using the previous entry
and the next entry as operands. Addition, subtraction, mul-
tiplication and division are denoted by the characters '+',
'-', '*' and '/' respectively ('x' is also synonymous with
multiplication).
Number Manipulation Operators.
Int [ i ] Return the integer portion of the current
entry.
Frac [ : ] Return the fractional portion of the
current entry.
Abs [ u ] Return the absolute value of the current
entry.
+/- [ C ] Change the arithmetic sign of the current
entry.
1/x [ r ] Return the value of 1 divided by the
current entry.
x^2 [ @ ] Return the square of the current entry.
% [ % ] Perform a percentage calculation using the
last entry and the next entry.
Sqrt [ s ] Perform a square root operation on the
current entry.
Menu Operations.
Each of these operations has a popup menu associated with
it. It is also possible to use just the keyboard to achieve
the same results. The first keyboard value selects the menu
operation; the second keyboard character selects the new
value for this operation. Unlike the menu facility available
with the mouse, there is no visual feedback on what choices
are available to you, so the user has to know what item they
wish to select.
Acc [ A ] Set the display accuracy. Between 0 and 9
[ 0-9 ] significant digits can be
displayed.
Rcl [ R ] Retrieve memory register value. There are
ten memory registers [ 0-9 ].
Sto [ S ] Store value in memory register. There are
ten memory registers [ 0-9 ]. The
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
register number may be preceded by an
arithmetic operation (addition, subtrac-
tion, multiplication or division), in
which case the specified operation is car-
ried out between the displayed entry and
the value currently in the selected memory
register, and the result is placed in the
memory register.
Exch [ X ] Exchange the current display with the con-
tents of a memory register. There are ten
memory registers [ 0-9 ].
Other Operations.
Clr [ Delete ] Clear the display, and reset the calcula-
tor.
CE [ Control-Back Space ]
Clear the display.
Bsp [ Back Space ]
Remove the rightmost character of the
current entry, and recalculate the
displayed value.
FINANCIAL MODE
An example of how to use each of these financial calcula-
tions, is available via the tooltip help facility.
Ctrm [ m ] Compounding term. Computes the number of
compounding periods it will take an
investment of present value pv to grow to
a future value of fv, earning a fixed
interest rate int per compunding period.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 int (periodic interest
rate).
Register 1 fv (future value).
Register 2 pv (present value).
Ddb [ D ] Double-declining depreciation. Computes
the depreciation allowance on an asset for
a specified period of time, using the
double-declining balance method.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 cost (amount paid for
asset).
Register 1 salvage (value of asset
at end of life).
Register 2 life (useful life of the
asset).
Register 3 period (time period for
depreciation allowance).
Fv [ v ] Future value. This calculation determines
the future value of an investment. It
computes the future value based on a
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
series of equal payments, each of amount
pmt, earning periodic interest rate int,
over the number of payment periods in
term.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 pmt (periodic payment).
Register 1 int (periodic interest
rate).
Register 2 n (number of periods).
Pmt [ P ] Periodic payment. Computes the amount of
the periodic payment of a loan. Most
installment loans are computed like ordi-
nary annuities, in that payments are made
at the end of each payment period.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 prin (principal).
Register 1 int (periodic interest
rate).
Register 2 n (term).
Pv [ p ] Present value. Determines the present
value of an investment. It computes the
present value based on a series of equal
payments, each of amount pmt, discounted
at periodic interest rate int, over the
number of periods in term.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 pmt (periodic payment).
Register 1 int (periodic interest
rate).
Register 2 n (term).
Rate [ T ] Periodic interest rate. Returns the
periodic interest necessary for a present
value of pv to grow to a future value of
fv over the number of compounding periods
in term.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 fv (future value).
Register 1 pv (present value).
Register 2 n (term).
Sln [ l ] Straight-line depreciation. Computes the
straight-line depreciation of an asset for
one period. The straight-line method of
depreciation divides the depreciable cost
(cost - salvage) evenly over the useful
life of an asset. The useful life is the
number of periods (typically years) over
which an asset is depreciated.
Memory register usage:
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
Register 0 cost (cost of the asset).
Register 1 salvage (salvage value of
the asset).
Register 2 life (useful life of the
asset).
Syd [ Y ] Sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation. The
sum-of-the-years'-digits method of depre-
ciation accelerates the rate of deprecia-
tion, so that more depreciation expense
occurs in earlier periods than in later
ones. The depreciable cost is the actual
cost minus salvage value. The useful life
is the number of periods (typically years)
over which an asset is depreciated.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 cost (cost of the asset).
Register 1 salvage (salvage value of
the asset).
Register 2 life (useful life of the
asset).
Register 3 period (period for which
depreciation is computed).
Term [ t ] Payment period. Returns the number of pay-
ment periods in the term of an ordinary
annuity necessary to accumulate a future
value of fv, earning a periodic interest
rate of int. Each payment is equal to
amount pmt.
Memory register usage:
Register 0 pmt (periodic payment).
Register 1 fv (future value).
Register 2 int (periodic interest
rate).
SCIENTIFIC MODE
This section describes the functionality available in the
calculators scientific mode. This also includes a special
mode panel used for setting various options.
Mode Panel.
Numeric Base Set the numeric base of operation. Choices
are binary, octal, decimal (the default)
and hexadecimal.
Display Type Set the display mode. Valid values are
"Eng" (engineering), "Fix" (fixed-point)
and "Sci" (scientific).
Trigonometric Type
Set the trigonometric type. Valid values
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
are Degrees, Gradients and Radians.
Hyp Toggle the hyperbolic function indicator.
This switch affects the type of sine,
cosine and tangent trigonometric functions
performed.
Inv Toggle the inverse function indicator.
This switch affects the type of sine,
cosine and tangent trigonometric functions
performed.
Menu Operations.
Con [ # ] Retrieve and display a constant value.
There are ten constant values [ 0-9 ], and
each one has a default value which can be
overridden when the user creates their own
constant definitions. The ten default
values are:
0 0.621 kilometers per hour or
miles per hour
1 1.414213562 square root of 2
2 2.718281828 e
3 3.141592653 pi
4 0.3937007 centimeters or inches
5 57.295779513 degrees in a radian
6 1048576.0 2 to the power of 20
7 0.0353 grams or ounces
8 0.948 kilojoules or British
thermals
9 0.0610 cubic centimeters or
cubic inches
Fun [ F ] Retrieve and execute a function expres-
sion. There can be upto ten functions
expression defined by the user [0 - 9].
There are no default function values.
Scientific buttons.
< [ < ] Shift the current entry to the left. The
shift can be between 1 and 15 places [ 1-
9, a-f ]. This calculator key has a popup
menu associated with it.
> [ > ] Shift the current entry to the right. The
shift can be between 1 and 15 places [ 1-
9, a-f ]. This calculator key has a popup
menu associated with it.
&16 [ ] ] Truncate the current entry to a 16 bit
unsigned integer.
&32 [ [ ] Truncate the current entry to a 32 bit
unsigned integer.
( and ) [ ( and ) ]
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
Parentheses. Allow precedence with arith-
metic calculations. Note that parentheses
can be nested to any level, and gcalctool
provides a visual feedback of what is
being typed in, in the calculator display.
The calculation doesn't take place until
the last parenthesis is matched, then the
display is updated with the new result.
Exp [ E ] This is used to allow numbers to be
entered in scientific notation. The
mantissa should be initially entered, then
the Exp key selected. The exponent is then
entered. If no numerical input had
occurred when the Exp key was selected,
then a mantissa of 1.0 is assumed.
e^x [ { ] Returns e raised to the power of the
current entry.
10^x [ } ] Returns 10 raised to the power of the
current entry.
y^x [ y ] Take the last entry and raise it to the
power of the next entry.
x! [ ! ] Return the factorial of the current entry.
Note that the factorial function is only
valid for positive integers.
Rand [ ? ] Return a random number between 0.0 and
1.0.
Hexadecimal Keys [ a-f ]
The hexadecimal numerical digits A-F.
These buttons will be insensitive unless
the calculator is currently in the hexade-
cimal mode.
Cos [ J ] Return the trigonometric cosine, arc
cosine, hyperbolic cosine or inverse
hyperbolic cosine of the current display,
depending upon the current settings of the
hyperbolic and inverse function switches.
The result is displayed in the current
trigonometric units (degrees, radians or
grads).
Sin [ K ] Return the trigonometric sine, arc sine,
hyperbolic sine or inverse hyperbolic sine
of the current display, depending upon the
current settings of the hyperbolic and
inverse function switches. The result is
displayed in the current trigonometric
units (degrees, radians or grads).
Tan [ L ] Return the trigonometric tangent, arc
tangent, hyperbolic tangent or inverse
hyperbolic tangent of the current display,
depending upon the current settings of the
hyperbolic and inverse function switches.
The result is displayed in the current
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User Commands gcalctool(1)
trigonometric units (degrees, radians or
grads).
Ln [ N ] Return the natural logarithm of the
current entry.
Log [ G ] Return the base 10 logarithm of the
current entry.
Or [ | ] Perform a logical OR operation on the
current entry and the next entry,
And [ & ] Perform a logical AND operation on the
current entry and the next entry, treating
both numbers as unsigned long integers.
Not [ ~ ] Perform a logical NOT operation on the
current entry.
Xor [ ^ ] Perform a logical XOR operation on the
current entry and the next entry, treating
both numbers as unsigned long integers.
Xnor [ n ] Perform a logical XNOR operation on the
current entry and the next entry, treating
both numbers as unsigned long integers.
FILES
~/.gcalctoolrc user's personal gcalctool resources for
customizing the appearance and color of
gcalctool
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